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口譯交傳:李克強總理中外記者見面會


來源:新華網    作者:天之聰教育   時間:2018-03-27 09:20   點擊: 次  

 

3月20日(星期二)上午十三屆全國人大一次會議閉幕后,國務院總理李克強在人民大會堂三樓金色大廳會見采訪十三屆全國人大一次會議的中外記者并回答記者提出的問題。

李克強總理會見采訪兩會的中外記者并回答提問

Premier Li Keqiang Meets the Press

十三屆全國人大一次會議20日上午在人民大會堂舉行記者會,國務院總理李克強應大會發言人張業遂的邀請會見中外記者,并回答記者提問。國務院副總理韓正、孫春蘭、胡春華、劉鶴參加。

The First Session of the 13th National People’s Congress held a press conference on 20 March 2018. Premier Li Keqiang met with Chinese and foreign reporters and answered their questions at the invitation of Spokesperson Mr. Zhang Yesui. The press conference was also attended by Vice-Premiers Han Zheng, Sun Chunlan, Hu Chunhua and Liu He.

李克強總理向中外記者介紹了各位副總理,并對大家表示感謝,歡迎大家提問。

Premier Li Keqiang presented the newly-appointed vice-premiers and thanked members of the media. He then opened the floor to questions. The following is a transcript of the press conference.

李克強:媒體的各位朋友們,女士們、先生們,感謝你們為中國兩會作出了大量的報道、付出的辛勞,在這里向你們表示衷心的感謝。

我先介紹一下幾位新任的副總理:韓正副總理。孫春蘭副總理。胡春華副總理。劉鶴副總理。

下面歡迎媒體的朋友們提問。

Premier Li Keqiang: Members of the media, ladies and gentlemen, let me begin by expressing my high appreciation to all of you for your hard work in covering the NPC and CPPCC sessions. Before taking your questions, let me present to you the newly-appointed vice-premiers. They are: Vice-Premier Han Zheng, Vice-Premier Sun Chunlan, Vice-Premier Hu Chunhua and Vice-Premier Liu He. Now the floor is open for questions.

彭博社記者:今年是中國改革開放40周年。在過去的40年中,中國取得了巨大的經濟發展成就,成功使數億人脫貧。在中國進入新時代以后,面臨的問題將更加復雜,我們認為中國改革開放的模式也會經歷一些變化,這集中體現在這次兩會期間通過了政府機構改革方案以及進行修憲等。請問中國特別是在吸引外資和促進外貿方面,奉行的改革開放模式會跟過去40年有什么不同?

Bloomberg: This year is the 40th anniversary of China’s reform and opening. Over those 40 years, China has enjoyed unprecedented economic growth and hundreds of millions of people have been pulled out of poverty. But it’s becoming increasingly clear that China is entering a new era, where problems are going to become more complicated and the model of reform and opening is also changing, highlighted by the restructuring of the government departments and the revisions of the Constitution that were passed by the National People’s Congress this year. I wanted to ask you what will the biggest difference be between reform and opening in this new era versus the past, especially when it comes to foreign investment and trade?

李克強:中國40年來有目共睹的經濟社會發展成就和開放是密不可分的。開放推動了改革,促進了發展。可以說中國人民從開放中嘗到了甜頭。去年年初,習近平主席在達沃斯世界經濟論壇發表演講時明確表示,中國將繼續維護自由貿易,開放是中國的基本國策。如果說中國的開放有新變化的話,那就是門會越開越大。中國經濟已經深度融入世界經濟,關上門等于擋住了我們自己的路。

Premier Li: Opening-up has been instrumental to China’s economic and social transformation in the past 40 years. It has driven China’s reform agenda, promoted its development and delivered real benefits to the Chinese people. In his speech at the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos last year, President Xi Jinping made it clear that China will continue to uphold free trade and pursue opening-up as a fundamental policy. If there’s anything that’s going to be different from the past, it will be that China will open even wider to the world. With its economy so integrated into the global economy, closing China’s door will only hinder our own progress.

新的變化意味著進一步擴大開放,我們在開放方面還有較大的空間和潛力。比如貨物貿易,我們商品進口稅率水平在世界上處于中等水平,我們愿意以更開放的姿態進一步降低商品進口的總體稅率水平。一些市場熱銷的消費品,包括藥品,特別是群眾、患者急需的抗癌藥品,我們要較大幅度地降低進口稅率,對抗癌藥品力爭降到零稅率。對于服務貿易,我們現在是逆差,進一步開放服務業會付出一些代價,但可以促進提高我們產業的競爭力。下一步重點要放寬服務業的準入,比如在養老、醫療、教育、金融等領域,我們會加大放寬準入力度,在一些領域逐步放寬甚至取消股比限制。我們還會全面放開制造業,在這方面不允許強制轉讓技術,我們將保護知識產權。

China will continue to open up; indeed, there is still broad space to do so. China’s import tariffs are at the medium level internationally. We are committed to bringing them down still further, particularly for high-demand consumer goods. For instance, we aim to adopt zero tariff for the much-needed anti-cancer drugs.

On the other hand, China runs a deficit in trade in services. Further opening of the services sector will entail a cost, but it will make the sector more competitive. We plan to widen access to elderly care, health care, education and financial services. We will ease or lift the cap on foreign ownership in some sectors. We will also make the manufacturing sector fully open. There will be no mandatory requirement for technology transfer, and intellectual property rights will be better protected.

我們的外商投資負面清單會進一步調整縮減。今年及今后幾年會逐步放寬準入。而且我們還要加快推進涉及外商投資的三個法律合并成一個基礎性法律,以實現給外商準入前國民待遇的承諾。至于你提到的修憲、機構改革與開放的關系,這次全國人民代表大會已經批準了憲法修正案和政府機構改革方案,我們會遵循憲法,推進機構改革,這將更有利于堅持我們對外開放的基本國策。

The negative list for inbound investment will be shortened in the course of this year and the coming years. We aim to merge the three laws governing foreign investment into one law, and fully honor our commitment to foreign investors of pre-establishment national treatment.

As for your question about how the constitutional amendment and institutional reform is going to impact China’s opening-up, now that the constitutional amendment and government institutional reforms have been adopted at the NPC session, we will faithfully observe the amended Constitution and follow through on institutional reform. This will reinforce our commitment to the fundamental policy of opening-up.

我在報紙上看到,部分媒體對中國的開放有這樣那樣的議論,所以我多說兩句。我們的努力方向是要使13億人的市場逐步成為中外企業、各類所有制企業都可以公平競爭的市場,給中國消費者以更多的選擇,促使中國產品和服務升級,促進經濟向高質量的方向發展。

I can see from some media reports that opinions are divided on market openness in China. Let me make this clear. Our goal is to gradually create a level playing field in a market of 1.3 billion consumers for both Chinese and foreign-invested enterprises of all types of ownership. This will provide Chinese consumers with more options and incentivize the upgrading of Chinese products and services and that of the overall economy.

當然,中國的開放是一個漸進的過程,有些當時看起來并不起眼的開放舉措,幾年后回過頭來看,可能成效令人驚訝。比如說5年前我們簡化了因私護照辦理和出境的手續,結果出境人次從當年的7000多萬增加到去年的1億3千多萬,而且其中多數都是去旅游和消費。所以看中國的開放,不僅要看細節、領域,更要看長遠、全景。當然,開放是雙向的、是相互的,就好像雙人劃船,光靠單人使力,這個船只能原地打轉。只有兩人同向用力才能向前進。

This said, China’s opening-up will be an incremental process. In retrospect, a modest step of opening-up may sometimes yield enormous benefits. For example, five years ago we simplified the procedure for getting passports and traveling overseas. As a result, the number of outbound trips made by Chinese citizens surged from 70 million to 130 million last year, most of them being tourists and shoppers. In making sense of China’s opening-up, one needs to pay attention to the concrete steps in specific areas, but more importantly take a panoramic and long-term view. I also want to emphasize that opening needs to work both ways. It’s like rowing a boat: if only one of the two oars people is giving it their best, the boat will just keep turning on the spot. They’ll only move forward if both are working in the same direction.

中國日報社記者:總理您好,今年兩會期間,有代表委員提出要像當年抓GDP一樣,抓“放管服”改革,同時也有人說,中國目前的制度性成本還是很高,辦事還是比較難。請問總理,“放管服”改革要放多少?放了以后該怎么管?是否有一個明確的目標?

China Daily: During this year’s “Two Sessions”, some delegates expressed the view that the Chinese government should pursue the reform of its own functions with the same determination as in pursuing GDP growth in the past. At the same time, we have also heard some complaints suggesting that the government-imposed transaction cost in China remains high, and it is still difficult for the people to get things done. So I would like to ask you, Mr. Premier, what more steps will the new government take to streamline administration and delegate powers? And what will the government do to enhance compliance oversight? Are there any specific goals in this area?

李克強:這是一個很重要的問題。上屆政府伊始,我們抓住轉變政府職能這個“牛鼻子”,推動簡政放權、放管結合、優化服務改革,就是要理順政府和市場的關系,激發市場的活力和社會創造力。可以說這方面已經取得了階段性成果,成為政府持續推進自身改革、解放和發展生產力的一個利器。

Premier Li: You asked a very important question. The transformation of government functions was high on the agenda during our first term. We saw the effort to streamline administration, delegate powers, and improve compliance oversight and government services as pivotal to getting the relationship between the government and the market right, which will further stimulate market vitality and public creativity. I’m happy to say that our efforts have paid off, and these measures have become an effective means for further reforming government functions and for unleashing and developing the productive forces.

這次兩會期間,我到代表團、聯組會參加審議和討論,不少代表委員都提出,在推進供給側結構性改革的時候,政府要著力推動優化營商環境,提供辦事便利,這可以說是市場主體和人民群眾對改革比較迫切的愿望,他們提的有很多看似小問題,實際上連著大政策。我們要見端知本,改革就是要把突破點推向離市場、群眾最近的地方,把民之所望作為改革所向。

In my discussions with them during this year’s “Two Sessions”, many delegates raised the hope that in pursuing supply-side structural reforms, the government will focus more on improving the business environment and making things easier for people to get things done. These voices represent the high expectation of market entities and our people for further actions. The issues they raise may seem small, yet they bear on major policy decisions. We must heed this call by tackling the root of the problems and pushing for breakthroughs in areas most closely related to the market and to the lives of our citizens to better respond to their needs.

“天下大事必作于細”。在放寬市場準入方面,今年要在六個方面下硬功夫,也可以把它形象地說成是六個“一”,那就是企業開辦時間再減一半;項目審批時間再砍一半;政務服務一網辦通;企業和群眾辦事力爭只進一扇門;最多跑一次;凡是沒有法律法規依據的證明一律取消。現在我們開辦企業的時間經過幾年的努力,可以說已經降了不少,但是全國平均還要22天,而在一些發達國家,只需要不到一天的時間。我們項目施工許可的辦理時間就更長了,所以必須減繁。這六個“一”都是減,再加上減稅、減費,這些都是動政府“奶酪”的,是傷筋動骨的改革。

As we say in Chinese, every single detail counts in the accomplishment of big tasks. Going forward, these are the 6 things we plan to do. We’ll cut the time it takes for opening a business by another half; we will reduce the time required for reviewing a project application by another half; we will put in place, at the national level, an e-platform for accessing government services; we will work to see that our people can get things done in one office, without the need for a second trip; and we will ensure that any requirement for certification that has no basis in law or regulations will be abolished.

Thanks to efforts in recent years, we have significantly cut the time required for opening a business in our country. But it still takes 22 days on national average, whereas it takes maybe less than a day in a developed country. And it takes even longer for one to get a project permit in China. So, with regulatory streamlining and further tax and fee cuts, we are making profound adjustments to government functions. This is like moving the government’s own cheese.

當然,要放得開,還必須管得住、管得好。我們要加強事中事后監管,就是要管住市場秩序,對那些假冒偽劣、坑蒙拐騙、欺行霸市,乃至搞不正當壟斷的,就要把它驅逐出市場,甚至嚴加懲罰,因為它妨礙公平、阻礙創新,也有悖社會道德。市場活力和人文精神是相輔相成的。當然,我們加強監管,也要注意防止擾民。比如這次機構改革,我們就把涉及市場監管的一些部門合并了,推進綜合執法,避免多個“大蓋帽”去管一個小商販。

Any regulatory streamlining can only serve its purpose when supported with enhanced compliance oversight, which helps to enforce market order. All acts of malpractice involving cheating in the marketplace, making or selling fake or substandard goods, or running unlawful monopolies, will be dealt with in strict accordance with the law and banned from the market, as they are the enemy of fairness and innovation and go against social ethics.

We believe that a vibrant market and care for the people should go hand in hand. Compliance oversight should not cause undue inconveniences to average citizens. In this round of government institutional reform, for example, we have decided to merge the various market regulatory bodies in order to slim down the bloated ranks of officials who deal with market entities on a daily basis and exercise unified law enforcement.

剛才第一位記者講到兩會的時候提到機構改革,這次國務院機構改革還包括了國稅和地稅的合并,這令我想起了一件事。我參加一次座談會,有專家跟我說他去調研時發現,在餐館里邊吃飯是由地稅向餐館收營業稅,而要打包帶走就由國稅來收增值稅。他問當地有關方面,要是站在餐館門檻上吃該由哪個部門來收稅啊?當時對方給他的回答是“你這是抬杠”。但在現實當中的確有這樣的事情。我們這幾年通過推動營改增、取消營業稅,實現了稅收以共享稅為主,這樣國稅、地稅合并就有了基礎,可以避免多頭收稅、干擾企業的行為。所以放要放出活力,管要管出公平。管也是要觸動利益的。

The first reporter who asked a question mentioned this round of government institutional reform. One part of it is to combine the state and local tax offices at and below the provincial-level. This actually reminds me of a recent discussion I had with a group of scholars. One of these experts had been doing some local research, and discovered that if you sit and eat in a restaurant, the local tax office collects business tax. But if you order takeaway, the state tax office collects VAT. So he asked a tax officer: what if I stand and eat in the doorway of the restaurant? Who collects the tax then? The officer replied, “That’s just nitpicking for the sake of it.” But actually, it’s true that this kind of problem exists.

In recent years, as you may know, we have introduced the reform to replace business tax with value added tax. This has enabled the sharing of tax revenues and provided the foundation for the merging of tax authorities at the central and local levels to avoid duplications that burden businesses. So all in all, our regulatory rollback and compliance oversight will contribute to a more energized market and the creation of a level playing field. I should also add that vested interests will be dealt with in the enhanced compliance oversight process.

“利民之事,絲發必興”。推進改革、做好政府工作,就是要為公、唯實、利民。我們要努力為市場主體優化營商環境、為人民群眾提供辦事便利,敢于自我革命。只要是為了人民的利益,我們萬難不辭、萬險不避。

Nothing is too small for us to do if it delivers concrete benefits to our people. The ultimate purpose of all reform measures and endeavors of the government is to serve the common good, be results-oriented, and benefit the people. In this regard, the government will further reform itself to foster a better business environment for market players, and make it easier for our people to access government services. In so doing, this government will rise up to all challenges and press ahead against all odds.

韓聯社記者:隨著韓朝雙方商定下月舉行首腦會談,朝鮮表明無核化意愿,美國總統特朗普同意同朝鮮領導人會晤,近來朝鮮半島局勢出現較大變化。在此情況下,中方對解決半島問題有何期待?將為此發揮何種作用?中方是否還會繼續推進六方會談以解決半島問題?

Yonhap News: There have been significant developments on the Korean Peninsula recently, with an inter-Korean summit planned for next month, the DPRK indicating willingness to denuclearize, and the US President agreeing to meet with the North Korean leader. Under such circumstances, I would like to ask, Mr. Premier, what does China expect from the settlement of the Korean nuclear issue and what role is China prepared to play to this end? Will China push forward the Six-Party Talks to resolve the nuclear issue?

李克強:我們樂見半島出現緩和的趨勢,也支持一切有利于通過對話談判解決半島核問題的努力,中方會盡最大努力來推動和實現半島無核化、維護和保持半島和平穩定。我們希望看到各方拿出誠意,付諸行動,盡快把半島核問題拉回到談判桌上來,使半島無核化與半島和平穩定能有新的進展,這對有關各方、對世界都是好事。半島是我們的近鄰,直接和中國的利益攸關,我們的關注度是可想而知的。

Premier Li: We welcome the recent de-escalation of tensions on the Korean Peninsula. China supports all efforts that are conducive to the resolution of the Korean nuclear issue through dialogue and negotiation. China will continue to do all it can to take forward the denuclearization process and uphold peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula. We hope that all parties will show sincerity and take concrete actions to get the nuclear issue back to the track of negotiation and strive for new progress towards denuclearization and peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula. We believe this serves the interests of all parties and the world at large.

The Korean Peninsula is in China’s close neighborhood. China’s own interests are at stake. So you can well imagine how concerned we are with the situation there.

中央電視臺記者:現在有一些民營企業家擔心財產得不到有效保護,心里沒有安全感,不敢投資,甚至有一些還在想方設法地向外轉移資產,在有些地方還出現了一些企業家投訴政府的不作為和亂作為的情況。您對此怎么看?針對這樣的問題打算怎么解決?

CCTV: Concerned about the safety of their property, some private business people are reluctant to make new investments. Some are even trying to transfer their assets overseas. We have also heard complaints from private businesses about the inaction or arbitrary behaviors on the part of some government officials. Premier Li, what will your government do to resolve this problem?

李克強:中國改革開放以來,我們一直堅持“兩個毫不動搖”,可以說包括國企、民企等各類所有制企業,為中國經濟取得歷史性成就都付出了巨大的努力,作出了貢獻。現在民營企業稅收占半壁江山,對城鎮新增就業的貢獻率達90%。當然,一段時間以來,的確出現民企投資偏弱的現象,這和產權保護以及多方面的問題相關,我們高度重視。

Premier Li: Since reform and opening-up, we have remained committed to unswervingly consolidating and developing the public sector and unswervingly supporting and developing the non-public sector. It is fair to say that businesses of all types of ownership, private as well as state-owned, have made important contributions to the historic progress of the Chinese economy in the past few decades. Nowadays, private businesses account for about half of the tax revenues. They also contribute 80% to employment and create 90% of new urban jobs. It’s true that private investment has been less than robust due to weak protection of property rights and some other factors. We are paying high attention to addressing this problem.

保護產權就是保護社會主義市場經濟的基石,就是保護生產力,我們一直把各類合法產權的保護是放在心上的,而且逢難必解。記得去年在記者會上,有人擔心住宅土地使用權到期后會不會有問題,我們明確表示可以延期、不影響交易,而且這方面要抓緊修法。對農民土地承包第二輪到期,我們也明確提出繼續延長30年。我們還在多方面采取措施,維護合法產權,運用法律加強保護,這也是弘揚法治精神。

Property rights are the cornerstone of our socialist market economy. Protecting lawful property rights is like nurturing the productive forces. Hence it has been a high-priority item on the government agenda, and every effort has been made to tackle the problems our people have encountered in this area. For example, at last year’s press conference I was asked about the potential effect of the expiration of land use rights for residential homes. I responded by pledging automatic renewal of the rights and the protection of all such transactions. I also called for amending the relevant law to reflect this policy. Since then, we have also reaffirmed the extension of the current rural land contracts by another 30 years. These are examples of our efforts to protect property rights through means of law, which is a good indication of our commitment to the rule of law.

保護產權必須要尊重合同,弘揚契約精神,不能把合同當做廢紙。的確,有些地方的某些行為不好,新官不理舊賬,換了一個官員,過去的合同就不算了。政貴有恒,不能把合同當廢紙。對此我們是堅決制止的,而且要予以處罰。去年我們有關部門抓住幾個典型案件,把涉產權的錯案糾正過來,這也表明了我們的決心,就是要持續向社會發出信號:讓恒產者有恒心,讓投資者有信心,讓各類產權的所有者安心,給所有合法產權所有者都吃上長效的定心丸。

Let me emphasize that contracts must be honored and not treated as scrap paper. Continuity is essential to good governance. New officials must not be allowed to disavow obligations undertaken by their predecessors; those who have done so will be duly punished. Last year, some property rights cases which were poorly adjudicated were redressed. These actions are meant to send a signal to the society of our resolve to ensure that all property owners and investors, regardless of the type of ownership, will have peace of mind as long as they operate within the confines of the law.

新加坡聯合早報記者:隨著中國經濟崛起,一些批評指出,中國越來越多地使用資本和中國市場的吸引力作為政治工具,影響他國的外交政策,甚至進行某種政治滲透。請問對此您有什么評價?您認為外界對于中國的崛起和戰略擴張應該感到擔憂嗎?

Lianhe Zaobao of Singapore: With China’s economic rise, some critics have been saying that China is increasingly using its money and market as political tools to try to influence other countries’ foreign policies or make some sort of political infiltration. How would you respond to that? Should the world feel worried about China’s rise and its strategic expansion?

李克強:中國這些年對世界經濟增長的貢獻率超過30%,這不僅有利于促進世界經濟復蘇,而且對世界和平也是貢獻。因為擴大了合作和貿易,就有了更多協商和談判,從而避免沖突。中國文化歷來主張“己所不欲、勿施于人”,我們希望的是和為貴。我們要維護國家的領土完整,絕不會也不能丟失自己的一寸土地,也不會侵占別人的一寸土地,這是同理,我們走的是和平發展道路。

Premier Li: In recent years, China’s economic growth has contributed some thirty percent to global growth. This has been conducive not only to global economic recovery but also to world peace. More trade and more cooperation mean more negotiations, and that helps to keep conflicts away. The Chinese believe that one must not do to others what one does not like to be done to himself. We always value peace. We are resolute in upholding China’s territorial integrity and will never give up a single inch of our own territory. In a similar vein, we will not take or occupy an inch of others’ land. What we pursue is a road of peaceful development.

中國過去的發展是在和平的國際環境下取得的,今后要實現現代化,也需要和平的國際環境。這里我想強調兩點:

第一,中國永遠不會搞擴張。中國是發展中國家,我們無意搞擴張,即使將來強大了,也不會走國強必霸的道路。我們愿意和各國在相互尊重、平等互利的基礎上發展關系,共同構建人類命運共同體。我們和其他國家的經貿合作都是按照市場規則、商業原則去推進的。我們倡導“一帶一路”,也是要共商共建共享。我們對于發展中國家特別是欠發達國家的援助是力所能及的,不附加任何政治條件,談不上政治滲透。至于國際社會在有些方面希望中國承擔更多國際責任,我們能承擔的是與發展中國家地位相當的國際責任。如果把這些看成是戰略擴張的話,那就是誤讀或者是誤解。

Our development so far has been achieved in a peaceful international environment. Going forward, a peaceful international environment remains what China needs for attaining modernization. Let me emphasize two points: One, China will not seek expansion. China remains a developing country who has no intention to pursue expansion. Even if it grows stronger in the future, it will continue to defy the logic which predestines a rising country to hegemony. What China wants is to develop relations with all other countries and regions on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit. Together, we could build a community with a shared future for mankind.

China’s business cooperation with other countries follows market principles and business rules. In pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative, we have sought shared benefits through consultation and collaboration. China’s assistance within its capacity to some other developing countries, especially underdeveloped countries, has never come with political strings. It has nothing to do with political influence. In some areas, the international community may want China to assume a greater role. Well, China is ready to fulfill its due international responsibilities commensurate with its status as a major developing country. It would be a misunderstanding to see China playing such a role as seeking strategic expansion.

第二,我們會集中精力做好自己的事。這些年來,作為總理,我深知中國發展中還有諸多困難和挑戰,在民生方面還有諸多難題和痛點,政府每天要應對的是大量這類難題。我們出訪和國際交往都是為了贏得和平穩定的國際與周邊環境,為中國發展贏得更多的共贏機遇,這一點我們是清醒的。

My second point is that we will continue to focus on managing China’s own affairs well. As Chinese Premier, I am fully aware that my country is still confronted with many difficulties and challenges, including many pressing livelihood issues. We in the government must deal with these challenges on a daily basis. We travel and make friends around the world in order to foster a peaceful and stable environment, internationally and in our neighborhood, and create more win-win opportunities for China’s development. We know clearly that this is what we should continue to do.

人民日報社記者:我們觀察到總理您在政府工作報告中指出,要讓更加公平、充分的就業始終成為高質量發展的亮點,但是在現實生活中,比如大學生就業還有轉崗職工再就業、復轉軍人再就業等仍然困難不少,這也意味著未來5年中國的就業市場將面臨著諸多挑戰。請問您準備如何解決這些困難?

People’s Daily: Mr. Premier, in your government work report, you said that fairer and fuller employment should always be a highlight of high quality development in China. At the same time, however, college graduates, laid-off workers from cutting overcapacity and demobilized military personnel continue to face difficulty in getting jobs, which means daunting challenges in ensuring employment. What do you plan to do to tackle this problem?

李克強:就業成效是要由人民群眾來評判的,如果有失業也是掩蓋不住的,所以我先回答你今年的問題,未來5年會怎么樣,要看今年做得怎么樣。

Premier Li: Whether the government is doing a good job in employment is best judged by our people. I don’t think anyone would be able to cover it up if we fall short on job creation. Let me first address what we plan to do on the employment front this year, as this year’s performance will be a good indicator of what is to come in the next five years.

過去5年,中國經濟運行保持在合理區間,其中一個很大的亮點就是實現了6600多萬城鎮新增就業,保持了比較充分的就業。就業對于一個家庭來說是天大的事。沒有一個人就業,一個家庭就毫無生氣。如果大學生畢業就失業,就沒有希望。所以我們要將心比心,各級政府及其工作人員,都要把就業放在心上,扛在肩上。今年政府工作報告首次把城鎮調查失業率列入預期目標,就是為了更加充分地反映城鄉就業狀況,也可以說這是自加壓力。

In recent years, with the Chinese economy operating within its proper range, some 60 million new urban jobs have been generated, ensuring relatively full employment in China. This has been a big achievement. Employment is of paramount importance for each and every family, and nothing is gloomier for it than zero employment of its members. A college graduate would not have a future if graduation means joblessness. Governments at all levels must fully appreciate the importance of employment, and always put job creation high on their agenda. In this year’s government work report, for the first time, we incorporated surveyed urban unemployment as a projected target, to better reflect the employment situation in both urban and rural areas. This is the government putting pressure on itself.

這里我想報個大賬,我們今年城鎮實際新成長勞動力有1500萬到1600萬,我們定的目標是至少要保證新增1100萬人就業,但方向是1300萬人以上,前幾年我們都做到了,今年也沒有理由不做到。與此同時,我們還有2.8億農民工,他們在城市化進程中蓋起大樓、鋪通大道,為中國發展立下了汗馬功勞。促進農民工就業也是新型城鎮化的重要內容,進城務工農民都是通過打工來增加他們的收入,今年至少還要新增三、四百萬農村轉移勞動力,對此,我們要責無旁貸地為農民工創造穩定的就業機會。

In urban areas, we expect to see some 15 to 16 million new entrants to the job market this year. Our minimum target is to generate another 11 million new jobs and we will work towards the goal of 13 million in actual practice. We have been able to do that in the past several years and there’s no reason for us not to hit that mark this year. Moreover, we have some 280 million rural migrant workers. They have worked hard to pave roads and build skyscrapers in the cities, making great contribution to China’s development. Getting migrant workers employed is an important part of China’s urbanization process and a big source of their income. This year, we expect to see some three to four million rural migrant workers coming to the cities, the government must endeavor to fulfill its responsibility in providing job opportunities for these people.

今年的高校畢業生達820萬,是歷史新高,還有近500萬中專畢業生,加上近百萬復轉軍人和去產能轉崗職工,必須努力保障他們的就業,絕不允許有零就業家庭出現。這就需要我們進一步拓展就業崗位,特別是培育新動能。過去幾年,新動能在增加就業崗位當中可以說做出了重要貢獻。我們要通過多方面的努力,保障比較充分的就業,這實際上也能夠更多地創造財富。大家想想看,13億多人口,8億多勞動力,如果能夠實現比較充分的就業,創造的財富是不可估量的,也會給世界市場帶來驚喜。

This year, there will be 8.2 million college graduates, another record high number, and five million graduates from secondary vocational schools. In addition, there will be some one million demobilized military personnel and workers laid off in the cutting of overcapacity. We must make every effort to ensure their employment. In particular, there should be no zero employment families. We must also explore new channels for creating jobs, not least by fostering new growth drivers, which have a proven track record of job creation in the past few years. Fairly full employment will also be a major wealth generator. Just imagine, how much wealth will be created by China’s 800 million-strong labor force out of its 1.3 billion population. This will also offer a huge opportunity for international markets.

美國全國廣播公司記者:最近越來越多的人擔心中國會取代美國的全球領導地位。因此有不少人認為,應該對華打貿易戰,來懲戒中國在國家主導模式下采取的不公平貿易和產業政策。您認為應該采取什么措施來解決美方關切,防止貿易戰?您是否還認為對話可以解決迫在眉睫的威脅?如果打貿易戰,中國能做什么?比如中國是否會考慮動用巨額外匯儲備和持有的美國國債?

NBC News: Premier Li, there is increasing concern that China will displace the United States as the world’s leader and a lot of talk about a trade war as punishment for what critics describe as unfair trading, industrial policies over an authoritarian, state-led economic model of China. So Mr. Premier, in your view, what measures can be taken to address America’s concerns and prevent a trade war? Do you still believe that dialogue can resolve what looks like an imminent threat? And what can China do in the event of a trade war? Would you, for example, use China’s vast foreign exchange reserves and massive holding of American debt? Thank you.

李克強:最近一段時間關于中美要打貿易戰的議論比較多,但是我認為中美打貿易戰對雙方都沒有好處,沒有贏家。而且如果用“打仗”這個詞來形容貿易的話,也有悖于貿易的原則。因為貿易就是要通過協商、談判、對話來解決爭端。我希望雙方要保持理性,不要感情用事,避免打貿易戰。

Premier Li: Indeed, there has been much talk about an emerging trade war between China and the United States recently. We believe a trade war does nobody any good. No one will emerge a winner from a trade war. War is essentially the antithesis of trade, and trade disputes should be resolved through negotiation, consultation and dialogue. What we hope is that cool heads and rational actions will prevail instead of emotions or impulses holding sway. A trade war should best be avoided.

去年中美貿易的規模已經達到5800多億美元,能走到這一步是靠市場,是按照商業規則來推進的,否則也不可能有這么大的量。當然,我們不愿意看見有比較大的貿易赤字,不僅是對美國。我們希望貿易總體平衡,否則的話難以持續。

Last year, China-US trade reached $580 billion. This is achieved through observing business rules and market principles. Otherwise, such a big volume of trade would be unthinkable. A large trade deficit, either with the United States or any other country, is not what China goes after. We want to see a basically balanced trade. Otherwise, it would not be sustainable.

剛才我已經講了一些中國繼續推進擴大開放的具體措施,包括在服務業、制造業、商品等領域。美方企業是可以抓住機遇的。但同時我們也希望美方能夠放寬對華高技術、高附加值產品的出口。我們會嚴格保護知識產權。希望美方不要丟了這個平衡中美貿易的重器,否則就是丟了賺錢的機會。

Just now, I listed some further steps of opening-up China is going to take covering services, manufacturing and products. US businesses may well seize these opportunities. At the same time, we hope the United States will ease restrictions on exporting high-tech and high value-added goods to China. The associated intellectual property rights will be fully protected. We hope this important measure for balancing China-US trade will not be passed over. Otherwise a good opportunity would be missed.

中國有巨額的外匯儲備。運用外匯儲備進行投資,我們從來都是按照市場規律進行多元化、市場化操作,而且中國是負責任的長期投資者。中美關系是最大的發展中國家和最大的發達國家之間的關系,兩國經濟有很強的互補性。中美關系穩定發展對兩國、對世界都是好事。至于對中國發展的一些擔憂,我認為那是過慮了。

China has vast foreign exchange reserves. We have been making diversified investments of these reserves on the basis of market principles, and China will remain a responsible long-term investor. The relationship between China and the United States is one between the world’s largest developing country and largest developed country. Our economies are highly complementary. A stable China-US relationship is in the interest of both countries and the whole world. Any worry about China’s greater development is unnecessary.

中國新聞社記者:我們注意到前陣子中國有關部門對一些保險類、金融類企業采取了強制性措施。請問下一步這樣的做法是否會繼續?以及這是否表明了中國新一輪風險點正在繼續,中國是否有可能發生系統性金融風險?

China News Service: Mr. Premier, we have noticed that recently some mandatory steps have been taken against certain Chinese insurance and financial companies. Will this happen again in the future? Does this mean that new risks are building in China? And will they set off systemic financial risks?

李克強:我要負責任地說,中國有能力防范、也不會出現系統性金融風險。因為中國經濟的基本面是好的,金融運行也是穩健的。當然了,中國經濟總量已達80多萬億元,銀行資產有250多萬億元,你說沒有點風險,那是不可能的。常言道:云多易生雨,樹大常招風。我記得我在這里曾經說過,我們銀行的資本充足率和撥備覆蓋率是比較高的,高于國際標準。我在這里還想說,目前我們商業銀行法定存款準備金率在15%左右,這也相當于存了20多萬億的準備金,或者叫做風險準備金。

Premier Li: Let me make it very clear as a person who holds responsibility in this area: China has the capability to forestall systemic financial risks and I do not foresee such risks. This is because the fundamentals of China’s economy remain strong, and its financial system is in good shape. That said, as China’s GDP exceeds 80 trillion yuan with 250 trillion yuan of assets in the banking sector, our financial system is not risk free.

Just as a proverb goes, gathering clouds may bring rain and tall trees catch the wind. I recall that at the press conference a couple of years ago, I pointed out that both the capital adequacy ratio and provision coverage ratio of Chinese commercial banks are fairly high and above international standards. Let me add here that the required reserve ratio stands at about 15 percent, which is equivalent to us having some 20 trillion yuan stashed away against risks.

今年我們還主動調低了赤字率,這是因為去年中國經濟穩中向好,財政超收超出了預期。僅中央財政就超收了2500多億元,我們沒有用,放到今年。而且今年前兩個月財政收入又達到兩位數增長,我們對實現今年全年經濟社會發展的主要目標和未來發展的預期是充滿信心的,所以我們還會努力按這個方向持續降低赤字率。當然,調低赤字率并不意味著要改變積極財政政策的取向。我們今年的財政支出超過去年財政支出,增加的量是不小的。我們降低赤字率既是有信心的表現,也是為應對如果國際不確定因素增多、國內一些新的風險點出現而備足工具。

This year, we have taken the initiative to cut the budget deficit to GDP ratio, supported by the sustained momentum of steady growth and higher than expected tax revenues. Last year, the central government had an extra fiscal revenue of 250 billion yuan above projection, and we have yet to dig into that amount of money. The first two months of this year saw a double digit increase in China’s fiscal revenues. So we are confident about meeting all the major economic and social development targets this year.

Going forward, we plan to further cut the deficit ratio. But this does not mean we will change our proactive fiscal policy, for this year will see considerable increase in the fiscal spending relative to last year. Our ability to cut the deficit ratio shows our confidence in the health of our economy and is also meant to make provisions for guarding against global uncertainties and emerging risks at home.

當然,金融領域也有一些違法違規行為或者規避監管的行為在興風作浪。最近我們監管部門主動出手、果斷處理,就是要讓這些點狀的風險不擴散,該戳的“膿包”還是要戳,否則也有道德風險。在處理的過程中,我們也注意保護消費者的合法權益,積累了經驗。未來有類似的問題出現,我們還會堅決地處置。

True, some irregularities and evasion of regulation in the financial sector have occurred. The relevant authorities have taken resolute measures to deal with the pockets of risks to prevent them from further spreading. When a blister needs bursting, it should be burst. Otherwise, a small problem may escalate and entail moral hazards. In dealing with these cases, we have taken care to protect the lawful rights and interests of our consumers, and have gained further experience in this area. We will continue to resolutely tackle such cases should they arise in the future.

我們這次機構改革把銀監會和保監會合并,也是要防止規避監管的行為發生。當然,還有一個老問題就是非法集資,政府會保持打擊的力度。這里我也想說一句話,投資者千萬不要聽信那些非法集資者編造的“竹籃子也可以打水”的神話。

In this round of institutional reform, we have decided to merge the insurance and banking regulatory bodies to plug possible loopholes. At the same time, we do face another old problem of illegal fund raising. The government will keep up the fight against such illegal activities. I would also like to advise all investors not to buy into the lies of those illegal fundraisers who’d have you believe a bamboo basket will hold a gallon of water.

今日俄羅斯國際通訊社記者:兩年前,我曾經向您提過關于中俄經貿合作的問題。兩年過去了,仍然有人說中俄關系政治熱、經濟冷。俄羅斯剛剛進行總統大選,將組建新政府。作為同樣新上任的中國總理,您希望新一屆俄羅斯政府實施哪些行動來改善中俄經貿合作?同時,中國政府又將會采取哪些措施?另外,您想向俄羅斯釋放怎樣的政治信號?

RIA Novosti: Mr. Premier, two years ago I asked you at the press conference about the China-Russia relationship being close politically but lukewarm economically. It seems that this is still how some people would describe the China-Russia relationship today. Russia just held its presidential election and will soon form a new government. As Chinese Premier at the start of a new term, what actions do you hope the new Russian government will take to enhance the business ties between the two countries, and what will the Chinese government do? What political message would you like to convey to Russia?

李克強:19日下午習近平主席和普京總統通了電話,習近平主席對普京總統當選連任表示了祝賀。

你剛才提到的中俄經貿關系,前幾年走了一個“馬鞍形”,這是世界貿易形勢變化、國際大宗產品價格下跌等客觀原因造成的。去年中俄經貿關系有了新的發展,貿易規模增加了20%以上。現在中俄兩大經濟體的年貿易規模是800多億美元,我覺得還有很大潛力。我們完全可以通過創新機制,挖掘潛力,朝1000億美元的目標邁進。如果說要向俄羅斯人民發出什么樣的信號,那就是:中俄互為最大的鄰國,中俄全面戰略協作伙伴關系穩定發展對雙方、對世界都有利。

Premier Li: On the evening of the 19th, President Xi Jinping and President Putin had a telephone conversation and President Xi congratulated his Russian counterpart on his re-election. Recent years did see a slide in China-Russia trade because of the changing landscape of global trade and the downturn in commodity prices. However, that slide was reversed last year and our trade registered an over 20% growth year on year. Between our two large economies, trade now exceeds $80 billion. I believe there is still much untapped potential in China-Russia trade. We can work together to bump it up to, say, $100 billion, by exploring new mechanisms and unlocking potential. What I would like to say to the Russian people is that China and Russia are each other’s biggest neighbors. The steady growth of the comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination between China and Russia serves the interests of both countries and the world at large.

臺灣東森電視臺記者:我們知道近年來由于種種原因,兩岸關系充滿著嚴峻的挑戰,前景令人擔憂,我的問題是面對這樣的形勢,大陸未來還要怎樣維護兩岸關系的和平發展?以及如何維護兩岸同胞的福祉?

EBC of Taiwan: In recent years, due to various reasons, cross-Strait relations have encountered some serious challenges with uncertain prospects. My question is, under such circumstances, what will the mainland do to uphold the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and promote the well-being of people on both sides?

李克強:保持兩岸和平發展,這是兩岸民眾的福祉所在,我們會堅定按這條路走下去。我們一直在考慮怎樣為臺灣同胞來大陸工作、學習、生活,提供同等的待遇,因為我們是一家人。正因為我們同屬于一個中國,那就不能容忍任何“臺獨”的企圖、主張和行徑,也不能允許外國勢力打“臺灣牌”,這會給兩岸同胞、給兩岸關系都帶來困難。我們愿意和認同體現一個中國原則的“九二共識”的臺灣政黨、團體開展對話、協商,共同商談解決兩岸同胞關心的問題,維護兩岸關系和平發展,最終實現祖國和平統一。這是民族大義所在。

Premier Li: The peaceful development of cross-Strait relations serves the well-being of people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, and we will continue to go down this path. We have been working on ways to ensure that our fellow countrymen and women from Taiwan will enjoy the same treatment as mainlanders when they come to work, live or study on the mainland, because we are members of the same family, and we both belong to one and the same China. That said, any attempt, proposition or activity for “Taiwan independence” must not be tolerated, and we must not allow any external forces to play “the Taiwan card” to cause difficulties for people on both sides of the Taiwan Strait and for cross-Strait relations. We are willing to have dialogue and consultation with all political parties and groups on Taiwan which subscribe to the one-China principle to discuss all issues that concern people on both sides. We should work together to uphold the peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and eventually achieve China’s peaceful reunification. We believe herein lies the fundamental interests of our nation.

光明日報社記者:近年來,我國的醫藥衛生體制改革雖然已取得了一些新的進展,但一場大病就讓一個家庭陷入困境的現象還是屢有發生。請問總理,新一屆政府在解決老百姓因病致貧問題上將會采取哪些新的舉措?

Guangming Daily: Mr. Premier, the reform of China’s healthcare system has made good strides in recent years, but often a major illness can still land a family in severe difficulty. What steps will the new government take to address the problem of illness-induced poverty?

李克強:過去幾年,我們用了很大的努力,在過去的基礎上完善基本醫保制度,構建了世界上最大的醫保網,這是為了讓人人小病能看、大病敢看。但同時我們也感受到,確實還有一些困難家庭看大病難。你剛才講的問題不只是困難家庭,還有一些享受不到優質醫療資源的家庭也有同樣的問題,新媒體上常有報道。

Premier Li: In the past few years, we have made enormous efforts to improve the basic health insurance system. A medical insurance safety net, the largest of its kind in the world, has been put in place to treat both minor and serious illnesses. This being said, some families living in poverty or those who have difficulty accessing quality medical resources do face the kind of problems that you mentioned. A lot of such cases are reported in the new media.

中國太大,我們還有三千多萬貧困人口。以習近平同志為核心的黨中央對脫貧攻堅高度重視,對打贏這場攻堅戰向全社會作出承諾。在貧困人口當中,很多是因為大病致貧,或大病返貧。所以我們要在鞏固基本醫保的基礎上,把治大病的問題作為重點來抓。這幾年我們創新體制,把基本醫保和商業保險結合起來,運用“大數法則”,放大資金效應,使更多的人享受大病醫保,去年就有1700多萬人受益。

China is a vast country; we still have some thirty million people living in poverty. The Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core gives high priority to poverty eradication and has made the pledge of winning the fight against poverty. Among the impoverished population, many are pushed or have fallen back into poverty because of a serious disease. The government, while improving the basic healthcare system, has given greater attention to the treatment of serious diseases. We have adopted some innovative measures; for example, we have complemented basic health insurance with commercial insurance schemes. By harnessing the law of large numbers, such an arrangement has produced an amplifying effect of the insurance funds and extended the coverage of serious disease insurance to 17 million people last year.

今年我們要在這方面繼續加大力度,提高的中央財政對基本醫保的補助資金,一半用于大病保險,至少能使2000萬人以上能夠享受大病保險救助,而且擴大了大病保險病種。同時我們要通過發展“互聯網+醫療”、醫聯體等,把優質醫療資源下沉,讓更多的大病患者能夠方便得到優質醫療資源的服務。

This year, we plan to do more. We will raise central government subsidies for basic medical insurance schemes, and half of the increase will go to serious disease insurance. Our aim is to cover at least 20 million people and more types of serious diseases in the insurance program. What’s more, we will encourage the development of telemedicine and healthcare consortiums to make quality medical resources more accessible at the community level.

今年春節前我到地方調研,路過一個貧困人口家庭,臨時走了進去,看到家里老人有大病,也有醫保卡,但還是不敢去看。這個情景在我腦中至今揮之不去。常說病來如山倒,我們就是要用大病保險等多種制度,不讓一個人患大病、全家都倒下。

During my inspection trip on the eve of this past Spring Festival, I dropped in on a poor family and met an elderly woman there who was seriously ill. Although she had insurance coverage, the family still found the treatment unaffordable. Their plight is still vivid in my memory. A Chinese saying compares a major illness to a mountain falling down. When such an illness strikes, it is our hope that the family will still find protection. That’s the very purpose of us having major illness insurance program and other similar mechanisms.

日本東京廣播公司記者:今年是《中日和平友好條約》締結40周年。您在1月會見到訪的日本外相河野太郎時曾經表示,中日關系可謂“乍暖還寒”。您認為雙方還應該采取哪些措施,使兩國關系真正復蘇?您是否考慮接受日方邀請,結合出席今年中日韓領導人會議,對日本進行首次正式訪問,開啟中日兩國領導人互訪?

TBS: This year marks the 40th anniversary of the China-Japan Peace and Friendship Treaty. Mr. Premier, when you met Foreign Minister Kōno in January, you have said the relationship is warming up but there are still some cold parts left. If so, what more should both sides do for the relationship to fully recover? And in the upcoming occasion of trilateral summit including South Korea, would you intend to accept the invitation for your first official visit to Japan and will that be the start of the reciprocal visits by the two countries’ leaders?

李克強:一段時間以來,中日關系確實出現了改善的勢頭,安倍首相多次邀請我訪問日本。我愿意在中日關系保持持續改善勢頭的氛圍中,積極考慮今年上半年結合出席中日韓領導人會議正式訪問日本。

Premier Li: We have seen signs of improvement in China-Japan relations lately. Prime Minister Abe has invited me on several occasions to visit Japan. In an atmosphere of continuously improving ties, I would be ready to positively consider paying an official visit to Japan while attending the China-Japan-ROK Leaders’ Meeting there in the first half of this year.

我認為中日關系改善不僅需要氛圍,更需要遠見和定力。中日兩國領導人互訪有利于讓中日關系回歸正常軌道,但更重要的是要夯實中日關系的基礎,我們不能搞“一錘子買賣”,要讓中日關系持續向好。今年是《中日和平友好條約》締結40周年,應該遵守和堅持《中日和平友好條約》等中日之間四個政治文件的精神和共識。如果說兩國關系現在出現了“小陽春”,就要防止出現“乍暖還寒”,要讓中日關系向著持續穩定的方向發展。我們對日方有期待。

Improvement of China-Japan relations requires not just the right atmosphere, but also vision and commitment. Exchange of visits at the leadership level will help get this relationship back on the track of steady development, but we must look to consolidate the foundation of China-Japan relations rather than just make a one-time deal. There needs to be sustained, steady progress of this relationship. This year marks the 40th anniversary of the China-Japan Treaty of Peace and Friendship. It’s important to honor the spirit and the consensus reached in the four Sino-Japanese political documents including the Treaty of Peace and Friendship. If we have seen a spring in China-Japan relationship, we must also watch out for any possible return of chills. We need to work together for the sustained, steady development of this relationship. That is what is expected of Japan.

新華社記者:最近幾年“互聯網+”和共享經濟發展的勢頭非常迅猛,但是也出現了一些問題,未來的發展可能還有一些障礙。請問總理,您對此怎么看?未來政府對推動“互聯網+”有什么新的舉措?

Xinhua News Agency: The Internet Plus model has been widely used in recent years and there is a boom in the sharing economy. Meanwhile, in this process some problems have cropped up, and their development may face some hurdles in the future. How do you see the situation, Mr. Premier? And what will the government do to promote further development of the Internet Plus model?

李克強:如果說中國經濟這艘巨輪這幾年能夠行穩致遠,其中一個重要原因就是在世界科技革命新一輪浪潮中成功掛上了“互聯網+”這個風帆,它催生了新動能。這幾年我們推動政府職能轉變,激發市場活力,促進消費成為發展主動力,使經濟結構發生深刻變革。這些都是相互關聯的,從而有效避免了中國經濟“硬著陸”。大家知道,前幾年“硬著陸”的聲音是不絕于耳的。現在經濟穩中向好,新動能等上述這些方面都起了重要作用。

Premier Li: In recent years the Internet Plus model has played an important role in promoting the steady growth of China’s economy, like a new sail being installed on the big ship riding the wave of a new round of global technological revolution. Transformed government functions have helped to energize the market. Consumption has become the biggest driver of China’s development, and there has been a fundamental change in China’s economic structure. All this interconnected progress, together with the new drivers, has enabled the Chinese economy to defy repeated predictions of a hard landing and sustain a sound momentum of economic growth.

“互聯網+”不僅加出了新動能,而且它是最大的共享經濟平臺,為大眾創業、萬眾創新提供了廣闊的舞臺,推動經濟社會發展和人民生活發生著深刻的變化,讓科技精英、企業家都有更多展現能力的機會,更讓億萬草根能夠發揮聰明才智,表現他們獨特的價值。

The Internet Plus model has not just fostered new drivers of growth, but also provided the largest platform for the sharing economy, giving opportunity for our people to pursue their own entrepreneurship and make innovations. It has made a big difference in China’s economic and social development and profoundly changed the way we work and live. In this context, technological professionals, business people or the average people can all tap into their unique potential and have the opportunities to prove their talents.

當然,“互聯網+”作為新事物,也有這樣那樣的問題,關鍵是要趨利避害,采取包容審慎的監管方式。對于“互聯網+”,不能怕惹事、圖省事,出現一些問題就一巴掌打死;也不允許利用“互聯網+”搞坑蒙拐騙,敗壞“互聯網+”的聲譽,抹黑“互聯網+”。我們應該從兩個方面悉心呵護。下一步我們還要采取推動“互聯網+”的許多新舉措,比如說過去一些“互聯網+”的企業總是到海外上市,現在我們已經要求有關部門完善境內上市制度,歡迎他們回歸A股,同時要為境內的創新創業企業上市創造更加有利的、符合法律規定的條件。我們還要推進“互聯網+”來拓展“智能+”,把它和醫療、教育、政務服務等結合起來,推動數字經濟、共享經濟向前發展,既快又健康。當然,對如何推動發展,既要符合發展規律,又盡量不要讓傳統思維限制了我們的想象力。

As a new phenomenon, the Internet Plus may also have its own problems. In this process, we need to maximize its benefits while taking care to address its possible downsides. In exercising regulation over new things, we believe the government needs to adopt a prudent yet accommodative approach. We should neither shut them down once problems occur, which would be the easier thing to do, nor allow the Internet Plus model to become a hotbed for cheating and manipulation. We should guard against both of these risks.

As the next step, we will adopt more measures to encourage the growth of this model. For example, Chinese internet companies tend to get listed overseas. What we plan to do is to improve the conditions for them to return to the mainland markets. We will also create conditions in keeping with the law for our mainland high-tech or innovation companies to get listed on the mainland markets. We need to further develop the Internet Plus model by applying smart technologies to education, health care, government services and other services sectors to promote fast and sound growth of the digital economy and the sharing economy. We need to both follow existing patterns and think out of the box in developing these models.

香港鳳凰衛視記者:我們注意到在您今年所作的政府工作報告中提到建設粵港澳大灣區,支持香港和澳門融入國家發展大局,全面推進內地和港澳的互利合作。但是在香港也有擔憂,擔心這一做法是否會讓香港失去自身的特色和定位,會不會影響到“一國兩制”的落實,甚至模糊“兩制”的界線。您怎樣看?

Phoenix TV of Hong Kong: Mr. Premier, in your government work report this year, you said efforts will be made to develop the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, support Hong Kong and Macao in integrating their own development into overall national development and further enhance the mutually beneficial cooperation between the mainland and these two regions. But some people in Hong Kong feel somewhat worried whether this will undercut Hong Kong’s unique role, or affect the implementation of “one country, two systems”, or even blur the line between the two systems. How would you respond to that?

李克強:我們要建設粵港澳大灣區,把它建成世界級的大灣區,重要原因就是三地有各自獨特的優勢,能夠形成互補,否則就談不上建設一個有世界競爭力的大灣區了。現在大灣區的規劃綱要正在制定過程當中,很快會出臺實施,港澳居民到內地來,特別是到廣東來工作、生活,在住房、教育、交通等諸多方面將逐步享受同等的待遇。我們愿意和港澳同胞一起共享國家發展的機遇。就是對臺灣同胞,我們也希望他們能分享大陸的發展機遇。

Premier Li: We want to build the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area into a world-class city cluster with the three places drawing upon each other’s comparative strengths; otherwise this Greater Bay Area would not be competitive internationally. The outline for the development program is being formulated and will be adopted for implementation. For people from Hong Kong and Macao who come to work or live on the mainland, especially in Guangdong, we will gradually introduce the same treatment for them as mainlanders in terms of housing, education and transportation, among others. We would also like to share such opportunities with people from Taiwan.

至于說香港、澳門融入國家發展大局,我們當然會堅持“一國兩制”、“港人治港”、“澳人治澳”、高度自治的方針,我們和其他國家都可以共同發展、互利共贏,更何況內地和港澳同屬一個國家,在“一國兩制”下,會更好發揮各自的優勢,形成互補,打造新的增長極。

We encourage Hong Kong and Macao to integrate their own development into overall national development. In this process, we will continue to observe the principle of “one country, two systems” under which the people of Hong Kong administer Hong Kong, the people of Macao administer Macao, and both regions enjoy a high degree of autonomy. As there can be mutually beneficial cooperation and common development between different countries, there is even more reason for the three places which belong to one and the same country to do so. Under the guidance of the “one country, two systems” principle, we are confident that these three areas will draw upon each other’s strengths and work together in building a new and strong region of vibrant growth.

中國國際廣播電臺記者:我們知道,中國目前已經進入到了老齡化社會,但是養老供給不足、質量不高,而且還面臨著很多人養不起老的問題。此外,我們也注意到,在某個省份,去年已經出現了養老金被“擊穿”的現象,不少人也在擔心,會不會有其他省份步其后塵?請問這個問題如何應對?將怎么解決兩億多人的養老問題?

China Radio International: Mr. Premier, given the aging of the Chinese population, quality and inexpensive old-age care is woefully lacking. It was also reported last year that a Chinese province ran behind its pension payouts, raising concerns about similar problem in other provinces. How should this problem be addressed and what will the government do to ensure adequate old-age support for the over 200 million senior citizens in China?

李克強:我們已經到吃飯時間了,你問了一個和吃飯相關的問題。保證養老金足額發放、按時領取,這是我們必須做到的。的確,有個別省份去年養老金收不抵支。我到一些老工業基地去調研,特別是今年兩會下團,我首先問的是養老金能不能夠及時足額發放。個別省份發放養老金之所以有困難,和當地經濟下行壓力較大、財政減收有關,他們已經采取盤活處置國有資產、調整財政支出結構等來保證及時足額發放。當然,中央財政也給了一定的幫助。

Premier Li: It’s already lunch time, and your question is also about a livelihood issue. We must ensure that old-age pensions will be paid in full and on time. The problem that you described did happen in certain provinces last year. I made a point of raising the issue of pension payouts each time I visit old industrial bases or hold discussions with the delegates during this year’s Two Sessions. The difficulties that some provinces face are mainly due to the decline in their fiscal revenues at the time of local economic downturn. But they have taken multiple steps to address the issue, such as putting to better use state-owned assets or adjusting the structure of government expenditure. The central government has also provided some funding support for this.

不可否認,可能還會有一些省份養老金在總體上會出現一些困難,但從全國范圍來講,我們保證養老金按時足額發放是有能力的。去年末企業職工養老保險基金的結余是4.1萬億元,當年也是收大于支。我們還有養老金的戰略儲備,就是社會保障基金擁有的資金在增加,去年達1.8萬億元,完全可以保證全國范圍內養老金按時足額發放。

Despite the difficulties faced by some provinces, at the national level, we are capable of making pension payment in full and on time. As of the end of last year, the balance of China’s pension insurance funds for urban workers stood at over 4.1 trillion yuan, and we had more revenues than expenditures. We also have 1.8 trillion yuan in social security fund as a strategic reserve, which is still increasing. So we are fully capable of ensuring full and timely payment of pension benefits nationwide.

當然,我們還要推進這個領域的相關改革,像今年我們將實施養老金基金調劑制度,中央收取3%進行統籌調劑,以后比例還會有所提高,以彌補有些省養老金可能會發生的不足。同時,我們還會通過劃撥國有資產收益來增加社保基金的總量,不僅使它安全,而且要拓展盈利空間,這些都是保證老有所養的“定盤星”,大家對未來應該充滿信心。為什么這么說?因為如果我們不能做到這一點,老人辛苦了一輩子還不能老有所養,那后來人就會失去信心。

We will continue to pursue reform in this area. This year, we plan to establish a central system of pension fund provisions that can be transferred to provinces in case of need. The initial contribution rate for all provinces will be three percent, which means each province will contribute three percent of their funds to the central provision to be used to fill the shortfalls that some provinces may face. In addition, we will use some of the state-owned asset proceeds to replenish the national social security fund to make it safer and more profitable. These measures will help to deliver stronger old-age support to the senior people in China. We should give people confidence in the future. Think about it, if decades of hard work cannot earn one a decent retirement life, our future generations will lose faith in us.

不能把老年人當作負擔,“夕陽紅”還是一個產業。很多老人可以做他們力所能及的事情。當然,這絕不是推卸我們必須保證老有所養的責任。

We should never see senior people as a liability, though. There are still so many things that they can do and a retired life can also offer tremendous business opportunities and turn out to be an important industry. That said, we will never shirk the government’s due responsibility in extending adequate old-age support.

剛才主持人說這是最后一個問題,你問的是民生問題,前面記者也問到了幾個民生的問題。這一點請大家相信,我們以習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想為指導,很重要的就是要貫徹以人民為中心的發展思想,人民政府工作的出發點和落腳點就是保障和改善民生,我們就是要保障基本民生,破除民生痛點,增加優質資源,惠及更多人民群眾。

Just now the moderator said this is going to be the last question. I recall that previously we also addressed several questions related to people’s livelihood. Under the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, we will continue to put people first. The efforts made by a people’s government boils down to the purpose of serving our people’s well-being and improving their lives. We will continue to take strong measures to ensure people’s basic living needs, address their pressing concerns, make more quality resources available, and deliver more concrete benefits to our people.

記者會結束時,楚天都市報記者問:個稅起征點會提高多少?

Chutian Metropolis Daily: Mr. Premier, how much will the personal income tax threshold be raised?

李克強答:我們會抓緊啟動,按法律程序辦理。

Premier Li: We will start the relevant process expeditiously and the procedures will be handled in accordance with law.

記者會在人民大會堂三樓金色大廳舉行,歷時約2小時,參加采訪的中外記者1200余名。



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